Below are several versions of infantry hat insignia for enlisted men. Typically, the hat insignia features two crossed rifles. Usually above the rifles is the a number, which is the number of the regiment. Below the rifles is a letter, indicating the company within the regiment.
One issue with the hat insignia was that, generally, there was no way to tell from which state the regiment was from, or if the regiment was a U.S. regular army regiment, for instance, from the insignia alone. Without the known provenance of the first example below, we would not know if an individual wearing it was from, for example, the 1st U.S. Infantry, Company E, the 1st Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, Company E or 1st Missouri Volunteer Infantry, Company E. The latter is correct in this case.
This is the hat insignia of the 1st Missouri Infantry, Company E. This particular insignia belonged to Aubrey Whetton.
This version partially solves the regiment identification issue. This version belonged to Ralph Richmond Pomeroyvof the 1st Idaho Volunteer Infantry, Company H. It does identify the state, but it does not provide the regiment number, an issue if the state would provide more than on regiment. Private Pomeroy was mustered in on May 11, 1898 in Boise, for a two year term. He was mustered out September 25, 1899, at the Presido, San Francisco.
Richmond, Paul - Image of the hat insignia of the 1st Idaho Volunteer Infantry, Company H belonging to Ralph Richmond Pomeroy, and information on his military service.